Can I pray while sitting? For example if prayer comes while I’m sitting in the bus.
There are different opinions on that, but the general opinion is that performing the sunna (non-obligatory) prayers is permitted while riding on a horse or camel or riding in a car, bus or airplane.
As for the obligatory prayers, the general opinion is that it is not permissible to perform them like that unless one has an excuse. The person should delay the prayer until they are able to perform it normally. The exception is when a person fears that they will not have the opportunity to perform the prayer normally, in such a case it is permitted to perform the obligatory prayers in that way while sitting (if they cannot stand).
According to Imam al-Nawawi if the obligatory prayer is performed while riding, the person should redo the prayer once they are able. However other scholars believe that it is not necessary to make these prayers up.
- Fatwa from the Qatari Fatwa Authority (Arabic PDF)
- Fatwa from the Saudi scholar Abdallah b. Abd al-Aziz al-Uqayl (Arabic PDF)